To the Series of Individual Articles on the Six Original Kutschurgan Colonies
Following the celebration of the 100-year anniversary of these colonies, about which we have reported previously, the reader may find it not uninteresting to read about the establishment and settlement history of the six colonies of Selz, Kandel, Baden, Straßburg, Mannheim and Elsaß. Since the topic is rather extensive, we find it necessary to present the article as a series, and we hope thereby to present enjoyment to the readers. So now let us give the word to the author.
Reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept. 3, 1908, in Der Staats-Anzeiger
Konrad Keller’s Introduction
On June 10th the Kutschurgan colonies celebrated the 100 anniversary of their settlement in South Russia. It is my opinion that these celebrating colonies deserve to become better known to the readers of this newspaper. In that vein, I am going to provide the following brief, historical sketch of these colonies.
Just as the history and geography of South Russia was already known in ancient times, the same goes for the area along the Dnyester and its tributary, the Kutschurgan. Herodot, the father of history, wrote that the Naurians, a Scythian tribe, lived in that region, but which, a generation prior to the campaign by the Persian king Darius, had already left their land “for their own land had been beset by a large number of snakes, and more had arrived from the desert regions to the North, so that, finally, in great fear, they left their homeland and now live among the Budines.” In the area there was a large city called Ophiusa, that is, the one rich with snakes. The Romans, too, were familiar with the region, as demonstrated by a recent discovery of stone tablet in the Russian village of Korotnoye containing writings in Greek and Latin alphabets. The Kutschurgan plays a role even in the life of the brave Swedish King Karl the 12th. His biographer writes: In 1709, as Karl the 12th was beaten decisively near Poltova by Peter the Great, he and the left-overs of his troupes fled through South Russia toward Bender, under the protection of the Turkish Sultan, it so happened that in the Kutschurgan night befell him, and he and his loyal generals were forced to stay there overnight. At the time, the area was inhabited by the Nogaians, whose seraski (leader) lived near the upper Tiligul near today’s city of Ananayev.
And now a few words about the Kutschurgan River, the lifeblood of the German colonies there. The Kutschurgan River begins near the Russian village of Koshiri at the border of the Ananayev County. It flows southward for roughly 100 verst [ca. 65 miles]. The Kutschurgan passes through open plains in a rather deep valley and passes many smaller valleys on both sides, most of them growing small trees and shrubs. The Kutschurgan Valley possesses a layer of good and very fertile black soil. Below the village of Michailovka the valley broadens and forms several marshy and muddy ponds. In the spring, following winter with much snow, the entire valley is filled with snow melt and often causes flooding. The Kutschurgan ends at the so-called liman of the same name. That liman has a width of 11.5 verst [nearly 8 miles]. It is connected with another tributary, the Turuntchuk, via two river arms. It should be added that the Kutschurgan Liman ahs not been researched sufficiently. The question, for example, “what fills the liman if, for example, there are two years without rain or snow?” has not been answered by scientists.
And now to the matter at hand [the separate history of the six colonies]. Reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept. 17, 1908, in Der Staats-Anzeige
The Colony of Baden
The Colony of Baden was established in 1808, but the process of building the houses was not completed until 1809. The Colony was located on the Kutschurgan Liman with a portion of the village being located on a side valley, which itself ended up at that very Liman. The Colony of Baden is located 60 verst from Odessa [1 verst = 0.67 mile; 60 verst = ca. 40 miles], the main city [district center] of the region. The soil is primarily sandy, containing nitric acid. However, with favorable climate conditions, most grains grow well. There are no stone quarries in the area.
In 1848 the community lands totaled 3561 dessyatines [1 dessy. = ca. 2.7 acres; 3561 d. = just over 9,600 acres], which was divided in the following usage: land under cultivation, 1356 dess.; meadow land, 1020 dess.; grazing land, 1075 dess.; 110 dess. for gardens and plantations. In 1842 a forest was planted, but by 1848 there were only 120 trees.
The name of “Baden” was given to this settlement because many of the settlers came from the Grand Duchy of Baden.
There were 60 Catholic families who originally settled in Baden. Of these, 40 families were from the Grand Duchy of Baden, 18 families from Elsaß and one family from Austria. The document does not say where the remaining families came from. In all, there were 237 souls of both genders.
With the exception of 2 families, the 60 families came to Russia as part of three traveling parties, which were separately led by Michael Hoffart, Josef Tschau and Friedrich Lehle.
The land provided to the Colonists was assigned by Rosenkampf and the Liebenthaler Supervisor (word used was “Oberschulzen,” a kind of grand mayor), Franz Brittner, and was purchased by the Crown from landowner Sadow or Sador. On the land there were 6 small semlyankas (earthen huts), all of which were in a poor state of repair. The financial support to the settlers from the Crown amounted to 13,899 rubles, 67 kopeks silver. The total capital brought by the settlers to Russia from Germany was estimated to be 5549 Rubles.
Baden also had misfortune during the early years. In 1812, there was a plague, but only one person died. Between1824 and 1830 crops were devastated by grasshoppers every year. In 1833 and 1834 the crop failure was so complete that the colonists had to receive assistance from the Crown. Yet, the assistance of our dear God did not remain missing. From the years 1850 to 1870 there were many plentiful harvests, which helped put the settlers on their feet again and gradually brought them solid prosperity.
At the present time there are 242 households with 1814 souls of both genders. There is a parish church, a pastorate, its own Volost Office, and two schools with four teachers and 213 students.
Currently, Baden owns 3724 3/4 dessy. of community land. 20 individuals own a variety of portions of 1338 dessy. of purchased land. The community lands are divided as follows: the yards on which houses are built consists of 115 dess. Livestock business uses 6 dessy. vegetable gardens consist of 35 dess. and fruit tree gardens utilize 15 dessi. Grape vineyards comprise 9 dess., 3 dess. are meadows, and there are 3 dess. under water. 2 dess. are acreage covered with nitric acid, 6 dess. are used for clay pits, 12 dess. are used for a garbage pit. Roads take up 54 1/4 dess. and 2600 ½ dess. are under cultivation, plus 861 dess. Being sued as grazing land.. Orphan land consists of 340 dess. and is rented out for 7 rubles per dess. Grazing land is rented from an owner in Tiraspol for 3 rubles per head of livestock. For 70 rubles annually, fishing in the Kutschurgan Liman is guaranteed. In Baden one can find 21 workshops doing a variety of work. There is a co-op, 10 second-hand stores, and a pub, for which the community has to pay 770 rbl. rent.
The community pays the following taxes: 364 rbl., 20 kop. to the Crown, (Auskaufsumme) 2583 rbl. 20 kop., Basic interest charges amount to1818 rbl. 9 kop.,and the community owes 3831 rbl. 24 kop.
reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept 24, 1808 in Der Staats-Anzeiger
The Colony of Elsass
The colony of Elsaß was established in 1808, and in 1809 the settlers began building their houses and the entire settlement. (This is the wording in the document.)
The colony is located in a valley through the steppes, that of the Baraboi River, which has its origin 9 verst [ca. 6 miles] in a northerly direction from the settlement. The river runs through the village and thus divides it in half. The colony is located 50 verst [ca. 33miles] from the district center, the city of Odessa. The soil consists mostly of black dirt, with a content of nitric acid and, with favorable weather, is quite fertile. There are many stone queries located ½ verst [ca. .3 mile] from the colony, and the stones are of good quality. In 1848 the community land consisted of 3561 dessy. (now there is more land), and it is divided in the following manner: Cropland takes up 1725 dessy., meadows take up 800 dessy., grazing land uses 894 dessy., field gardens and home gardens take up 110 dessy. There are 110 trees. The name “Elsaß” was given to the colony because most of the residents came from the province of Elsaß. The colony of Elsaß was established by 60 families numbering 138 males and 135 females. Of these families, 36 families, 83 males and 88 females, came from Elsaß. From the Duchy of Baden (District of Rastatt and Bruchsal) came 21 families with 49 males and 42 females. From Prussia/Poland came 2 families with 5 males and 4 females. From Austria there was one family of two individuals. It is not known who led these settlers to Elsaß. The land for the colony was made available through Colonial Inspector von Rosenkampf and the through Mayor Brittner and was owned previously by the landowner Tscherbanka, purchased from him by the Crown. The area where the colony now stands contained two houses in a bad state of repair, covered by reeds. Until August, 1911, the colonists received a daily allowance of 3 kopeks silver from the Crown. Additionally, each family received 101 rubles, rbl., 42 and 6/7 kopeks toward purchase of equipment and supplies for their operation. Funds brought by the Colonists totaled 10,020 rbl. silver. The events and misfortunes in Elsaß were similar to those in neighboring colonies.
At the present time the colony has properties and 1952 residents. There is a parish church, a pastor, and two schools with three teachers and 254 students.
The colony of Elsaß owns 3667 dessy. of community land, which is divided as follows: Property yards take up 66 ½ dessy., livestock operations use 390 (?) dessy., vegetable gardens take up 36 dessy., orchards use 2 ½ dessy., vineyards take up 15 dessy., a forest consists of 15 dessy., 5 dessj. are under water, and a rock query consists of 10 dessy. 13 1/4 dessy. are used for roads, the railroad uses 13 1/10 dessy., cropland covers 2361 dessy., 220 dessj. is used for haying, and livestock grazing uses up 530 dessy. 220 dessy. is set aside as orphan land, which is rented out for a fee of 10 rbl. per dessy. Also, a significant amount of land is rented by the colonists from neighboring estates and landowners, for between 7 ½ to 9 rbl. per dessy.
For hay land, the rental price ranges from 10-16 rbl. per dessy. The rock quarries are very productive. Up to 50, 000 cut rocks are sold annually.
Taxes paid by the community is as follows: taxes paid to the Crown total 358 rbl. 62 kop.,
Reprinted from the Odessa Zzeitung Sept. 10, 1908 in the Staats-Anzeiger
The Colony of Kandel
The colony of Kandel was first settled in 1808. It is situated in the Kutschurgan Valley, on the left shore of the Dnjester Liman, located 62 verst [just over 40 miles] from the main district city of Odessa. Kandel is part of the Volost of Selz, which is located only one verst [less than half a mile] from Kandel. The soil near this village is sandy, but a short distance to the east the soil is black and, under good management and favorable weather conditions, it is very fertile. The village was laid out under the supervision of Duke Richelieu, who gave it the name “Kandel”. In 1848 the community land totaled 5965 dessy. [just voer 16,100 acres], and this land was divided as follows: land under cultivation, 1745 dessy.; meadow land, 1345 dessy.; livestock grazing land, 2532 dessy.; plantations included 215 dessy.; vegetable gardens and orchards totaled 126 dessy.
There were 98 Catholic families who founded Kandel. They came from the following provinces in France and Germany: From France there were 77 families totaling 306 souls. Of these, there were 20 families with 83 souls from the province of Elsaß (district of Selz); from Kandel, located in the Rheinpfalz, there were 6 families with 29 souls; from Hagenau, there were 10 families with 38 souls; from Germersheim, there weere 4 families totaling 14 souls; from Bergzapern, there were 5 families totaling 18 souls. From Billenken (??) there were 2 families with 7 souls; from Buschweiler there were 5 families with 11 souls,; from Lauderburg, there were 19 families with 72 souls; from Lohr, there was one family with 3 souls; from Lamaso, there were 2 families with 8 souls; from Pfalz (District of Landstuhl) there were 2 families with 8 souls; from the city of Mannheim there was one family with 4 souls. All individuals named thus far came from provinces located within France. In addition to these, there were 3 families with 11 souls from Austria. From the Würzburg Province, there were 2 families with 6 souls. From Bohemia (Prag), there was one family with 5 souls. From Bavaria, there was one family with 6 souls. From Prussia (Berlin) there was one foamily with 5 souls, and from the Grand Duchy of Baden (District of Rastadt) there were 16 families with 61 souls.
The immigrants came to the village in 1808 in various groups. The first party, consisting of 8 families, came under the direction of Michael Scherr. The second party consisting of 13 families was led by Jakob Steinhäuser. The leader of the third party, totaling 9 families, was Georg Kraft. The fourth party with 10 families was led by Sebastian Zacher. The fifth party, totaling 56 families, was led by Michael Wolf. The leader of the sixth party, totaling 8 families, was Michael Kuhn. Thus, 98 families totaling 389 individuals of both genders settled Kandel originally. The area where Kandel is now situated had not been inhabited prior to the formation of the Kandel settlement.
Assistance and loan money provided to the colony by the Crown totaled 16,015 rbl. 33 kop. Funds brought by the colonists from their homeland totaled 10,558 rbl. silver. The first church in Kandel was built in 1828. The present church was built in 1892.
At the present time, Kandel has 269 properties with 2522 residents. There is a parish church, one pastor, and there are 2 schools with 4 teachers and 374 children.
According to the most current survey, the community land totals 6216 ½ dessyatines [nearly 16,800 acres] and is divided up as follows: 205 ½ dessy. are used for lots and buildings; livestock operations use 20 1/4 dessy.; 33 dessy. are used for vegetable gardens; 37 dessy. are used for vineyards; 2 dessy. are covered with reeds; 69 1/4 dessy. is under water; 4 1/4 dessy. is used as a stone quarry; 1 1/4 dessy. as a clay pit; ½ dessy. as a garbage area; 34 dessy. are used up by roads; 4400 dessy. are under cultivation, 1308 dessy. are used for livestock grazing. There are 77 craftsmen doing a variety of work. Stores selling textiles and other goods total 17.
Fees paid by the community: payment to the Crown, 607 rbl 84 kop., Auskaufsumme [??] rbl. 88 kop., land tax, 2838 Rbl. 78 Kop., community debt [?] 2793 rbl.
Reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Oct. 1, 1908, in Staats-Anzeiger
The Colony of Mannheim
The colony of Mannheim was established in April 1809 on the steppes near the Baraboi River, located 40 verst [ca. 27 miles] northwest of the main city of Odessa.
In 1808, people from a variety of localities in Germany gathered for the purpose of emigrating to Russia. From the Duchy of Baden came 26 families. From Elsass there were 16 families. From Pfalz, there were 8 families. Together, this group totaled 50 families, with 105 males and 90 females; they had been divided into three groups for their trip to Russia.
The first group was led by Michael Schneider and Peter Bonhoffner. The second group was led by Ignatz Schatz and Simon Aman. The third group was led by Michael Hentsch and Joseph Vetter. The majority of the emigrants shipped out of Lauingen, traveling on the Danube River as far as Vienna. From Vienna the groups traveled on land through Austria, Mähren[Moravia] and Galica to the Russian boarder town of Radzivilov, where they remained for one month. While at Radzivilov, they were joined by 10 families from Prussian Poland, who had lived there for 5 years. From Radzivilov these three groups traveled further to Odessa, and while 2 groups arrived in September, the third came there in December. By decree of the colonist authorities, the settlers spent the winter in the Liebenthaler colonies, not far from Odessa.
On April 6, 1809, the 60 families of colonists gathered once again, and under the direction of the Liebenthaler Mayor Franz Brittner traveled to the area where they would establish the colony of Mannheim. The land on which the Colony was established was purchased by the Crown from a Captain Petro. The colonists found 6 stone houses, 2 of which continued to be occupied by the colonists in 1848. The other 4 houses were in a very poor state of repair and were eventually torn down..
The Crown provided advance money for food and loans to the colonists, as had also been provided earlier to the Liebenthaler colonists. Funds brought by the colonists from their homeland totaled approximately 2150 rbl. silver.
The colonists named their new settlement “M. Hilf” (translates to M. Help [possibly “Maria Hilf,” a common old custom of calling on Mary’s help - AH]), which is how it is worded in the document. However, in 1810, by decree of the authorities, the village was renamed “Mannheim”. The land given to the colony of Mannheim is mostly level, with only a few ponds made by the Baraboi. The soil is made up mostly of good, black dirt containing good levels of nitrogen. The water in most wells has a harsh and bitter aftertaste. In 1826 attempts began to establish vineyards found little success. In 1842, the authorities ordered the planting of a forest, but the document states that “the soil does not appear to be suitable for growing trees”. Over time, later arrivals came to Mannheim from Germany. In 1848 there were 140 families, with a total of 836 souls of both genders. The colony was also affected by tribulations and fateful events of various kinds. Nonetheless, our dear God always helped the colonists and they soon enjoyed growing prosperity. At the present time, Mannheim claims 208 properties and 1777 souls of both genders. There is a parish church with a pastor. There are two schools with 5 teachers and 258 schoolchildren. Mannheim owns 3705 dessy. [ca. 10,000 acres] of community land which is divided as follows: Yards on which people live takes up 103 dessy.. 15 dessy. are used for vineyards. There are 8 dessy. of forest, 2 dessyi. are under water, 27 dessy. are used as a rock quarry, 1 dessu. is used to mine clay, 13 dessy. are used for garbage dumping, and 30 dessy. are taken up by roads. Land under cultivation totals 2251 1/5 dessy., 169 dessy. are used for haying, 1061 dessy. Serve as livestock grazing land. Orphan land consists of 300 dessy. and the best of this land costs 9 rbl. to rent while, lesser land rents for 5 rubles per dessy.. Other rental land in the ara of Kurz and Viehler rents for 10 rbls. Per dessy., and near Schedewer, only half that price, and the owners of the land furnish the required seeds.
In Mannheim one will find: 2 windmills, one oil mill, one co-op, 9 second-hand stores, 4 wine cellars, and one pub. Every two weeks a market is held, but it is not well attended. Community obligations include the following: Payment to the Crown totals 362 rbl. , 29 kop. Land tax totals 1721 rbl 8 kop. and the comminity owes 5313 rbl., 25 kop.
Reprinted from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept. 3, 1908, in Staats-Anzeiger
The Colony of Selz
The colony of Selz was established in 1808, and the building of the homes was completed in 1809.
The colony is located in the Kutschurgan Valley where the Kutschurgan River flows into the Djnester Liman [estuary].
The water in the estuary is sweet and is drinkable for people and livestock alike. Selz is located 60 verst [ca. 40 miles] from the district center city of Odessa.
The soil near the village is quite sandy, but as one moves away from the village, the soil turns black and contains nitre. With favorable weather, the soil is very fertile. Stone quarries exist, but the stones are of low quality.
In 1848 the community owned 5835 dessyatines [nearly 16,000 acres] and 2126 faden [a unit of length (!)–ca..1.8 meters; it is not clear why it is cited here, or what exactly is 2126 faden in length - AH] (at the present time, more land is available). The community land was divided up as follows:
Cropland 1867 dessyatines, meadowland 2108 dessy., livestock grazing land 2108 dessy., field gardens and home gardens 170 dessy. and 2125 faden. In 1842 trees were planted, but by 1848 there were only 631 trees. In 1848, people began planting fruit and shade trees totaling to about 3444 trees.
The original colonists consisted of 100 families, 205 males and 196 females. The colonists came from various German provinces. From the province of Lower Elsaß there were 95 families with 196 males and 186 females. From Prussia there were 2 families with 2 males and 2 females. From Austria there was one family with one man and one woman. The homeland of the two remaining families is unknown. The settlers arrived in two parties in 1808 under the leadership of Jakob Steinhäuser and Michael Scherr. The land for the settlers was obtained by Duke de Richelieu from three Russian families. There were three earthen structures located on the land which served as a camp for the Russian families. These Russians soon abandoned the huts, leaving the area with no one knowing where they went. The Russian government assisted the families by paying 171 Rbl. silver per two persons, totaling 20,936 Rbl. The money brought to Russia by the German settlers totaled about 3250 Rbl. The Kutschurgan District office was located in Selz until 1871 and covered the colonies of Selz, Kandel, Baden, Straßburg, Mannheim and Elsaß. At the present time, Selz houses the Volost Office for only Selz and Kandel. The other colonies have established a separate Volost Office for themselves. Selz also has the oldest parish church in the Kutschurgan District, the parish having been founded in 1811 [perhaps 1841?]. Prior to that time, individuals were served from Josephsthal. The first house of prayer was erected in 1811. In 1821 the first church was built, but by 1830 the building was in need of repair and was remodeled on numerous occasions over the years. In 1901 the current, spacious, beautiful parish church was completed.
The Selz lands, according to the most recent measurements, total 6270 ½ dessy.[nearly 17,000 acres]. The land is divided as follows: yards around homes total 65 dessy., vegetable gardens total 42 ½ dessy., orchards take up 11 dessy., vineyards total 61 ½ dessy., reedy tracts take up 3 dessy. 141 dessy. are under water due to the liman, the clay pit covers 3 dessy., the garbage pit covers 5 dessy., roads utilize 61 3/4 dessy., cropland covers 4695 3/4 dessy., and pastures cover 1174 ½ dessy. In addition, Selz has 120 dessy. belonging to the parish that is leased to local residents at 8 Rbl. per dessy.
Selz has property 298 lots and 2637 individuals of both genders. Selz has a beautiful church, a pastor, and one school with 4 teachers and 246 students.
Every two weeks Selz hosts a market and every year a fair is hosted, from both of which the community receives 1400 Rbl. Selz has one doctor, a medical assistant, one pharmacy, a poor house with 40 beds, and a post office.
Selz is actually a colony of craftsmen, so it would be useful to build a trade school there. Selz has 100 workshops and industrial enterprises. These include 3 steam mills, 1 lemonade factory, 1 bakery, 28 blacksmith shops, 1 plumbing establishment, 6 carpenter shops, 4 painting firms, 2woodworking shops, 2 barrel makers, 49 cartwrights, 1 milliner, and 2 tailors. Additionally, there is one co-op and 32 stores and warehouses.
The proceeds for wagons, plows, harrows, fords and other items manufactured by the craftsmen of Selz totals in excess of 10,000 rbl. per year. Community taxes paid annually are as follows: 613 rbls 14 kop. to the Crown, “Auskaufsumme” [???] 3862 rbl. 20 Kop., land tax (or land rent),3021 Rbl. 17 Kop., community debts 4327 rbl. 10 kop
Reprinted in Der Staats-Anzeiger from the Odessa Zeitung, Sept. 17, 1908,
The Colony of Straßburg
The majority of the immigrants to settle in Straßburg arrived in June, 1808. They first came to the city of Odessa and by decree by the authorities were quartered in the Liebenthal colonies. In the fall of the same year, many of the families were allowed to the site where Straßburg is located today in order to begin building their living quarters. However, winter began in October that year, causing the poor people to experience significant suffering from frost and snow. Additionally, there was a great water shortage because a well had not yet been dug. The water for humans and livestock had to be hauled from two versts [ca.1.4 miled] away, causing a great inconvenience. The colony of Straßburg is situated in the Kutschurgan Valley, not far from the Dnjester Liman. The community land for the colony is about 15 verst [ca. Ten miles] long and 2 verst [1.4 miles] wide. The soil is mostly sandy and is not suitable for all types of grain, but with to favorable weather conditions the area is nonetheless productive, especially for root crops. A stone quarry is located 6 verst [ca. 4 miles] from the colony. In 1842 a forest and plantation were established, but not adequately cared for, and was thus not successful. The report from 1848 reads: “There is no forest in Straßburg”. According to the document, the name “Straßburg” was given to the new colony because two streets run through the village, but in my opinion this is not a probable explanation. A more likely reason for the naming is in memory of the city of Straßburg in Elsaß, the major city in the province where so many of the emigrants came from. The original settlement consisted of 60 families totaling 146 males and 115 females. One family arrived as late as 1819, so 61 households were finally established. The first 46 families came from the District of Weißenburg, Elsaß . There were 14 families from the Duchy of Würtemberg, near Bruchsal. The last family to arrive came from the city of Weißenburg.
The colonists were given a monetary advance for building their homes and purchasing the first seeds. In addition to a wagons, plows and harrows, each family received 355 Rbls. Money brought by the emigrants from Germany totaled 6461 Rbl. silver.
The colony was afflicted by a variety of problems, including livestock disease, grasshoppers and famine. The colonists had to endure illnesses of every type. However, our dear God also sent plentiful harvests and soon there was strong prosperity. The first house of prayer in Straßburg was built in 1818. The present parish church was built in 1863. At the present time, Straßburg has 293 households with 2178 inhabitants and forms its own Volost. Straßburg has a parish church, one pastor, plus 2 schools with 7 teachers and 250 students.
The colony of Straßburg owns 3669 dessy. [about 9,900 acres] of community land and 3004 dessy. of purchased land. The community land is divided up as follows: Property yards take up 75 dessy of land. Livestock operations use 20 dessy. 35 Dessj. are used for vegetable gardens and 50 Dessj. are used for orchards. 35 dessy. are used for a vineyard, 3 dessy. for a meadow, and 2 Dessj. are used for a stone quarry, 5 dessy. serve for a clay pit, 2 dessy. for a garbage dump. Roads take up 67 dessy. and 2442 dessy are under cultivation. 120 dessy. are used for haying, while 799 dessy. are taken up by for pasture.
The land for orphan children from 10 families totals 104 dessy and is rented out at 5 Rbl. per dessy. The proceeds go into an orphan fund. Over 1000 dessy. are rented, at 6 Rbl per dessy., from Russians who do not live here. Straßburg has two steam mills, 15 blacksmith shops, 6 wagon makers, 1 barrel maker, and 4 shoe makers. Additionally, there are 10 second-hand stores, 1 iron business, 3 wine cellars and one tavern. Straßburg pays the following obligations:
To the Crown: 358 rbl. 75 kop., Auskaufssumme [??] rbl. 75 kop, Land tax: 1596 rbl. 76 kop.,Community debts 7117 rbl. 50 kop.